An analysis of the styles of leadership and political strategies of roman leaders
These actors tried, sometimes successfully, to influence political decisions and to establish partnerships with local government, for example, as far as its international activities and strategies were concerned Jouve To support leaders' development, he introduced a new model of the human psyche and outlined the principles and techniques of self-mastery, which include the practice of mindfulness meditation.
Some episodes in this competition also shed light on the role of local politics. Penalties for adultery included banishment, or sometimes the husband or father of the adulterer could kill an adulterous wife.
For example, expressions of positive moods by leaders signal that leaders deem progress toward goals to be good. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader's effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency.
Roman social and political structure
Private leadership covers the 14 behaviors needed to influence individuals one to one. The Board was subdivided into several sectorial boards and ex post evaluation activities were to be carried out. Attribute pattern approach[ edit ] Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences—the leader attribute pattern approach. They relate to the underlying reasons for cooperation between the two spheres, to what is at stake in such relationships and to the strains that from time to time put it at risk and the consequent search by political actors for ways to adapt to changing contexts. These have been accompanied by a reproduction of its inherent features and its adaptation to major changes in economic, political and cultural conditions. It does so, above-all, trying to affirm a vision of the development and position in the world of Rome — in this phase for example Mayor Rutelli visited Wall Street and the London stock exchange to promote the sale of Council bonds — and asking businessmen to be involved and to play their part on the basis of more transparent rules than in the past, in exchange for continuity if not wider business opportunities. In-group members are said to have high-quality exchanges with the leader, while out-group members have low-quality exchanges with the leader. The local advent of neoliberalism and its early characteristics 24In Rome, as in many other cities in contemporary capitalist democracies, the neo-liberal paradigm has acquired a hegemonic connotation in the last twenty years. Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee. The innovative aspects of the agreement compared to the non-written agreements of the past were: its explicitness, the involvement of trade unions aiming at increasing employment, cooperative enterprises traditionally linked to the political left and to Catholic political parties, as well as small local enterprises and big state-owned firms. The main function played by politics within the urban regime consists of mediation between the interests and strategies of the different fractions of capitalist interests in the city and, in part, between them and the remainder of urban society. For a long time they were based on the distribution of rewards to interests involved in land use, through either opaque decisions or non-decisions. These are received at a local level with mimetic isomorphism effects. Control of the Chamber is a goal in the competition between the entrepreneurs who elect its governing body and committees. These things, in turn, offered in Rome support to a new season of co-operative relationships with the business sector, based on a new trust in such a renewed political system.
The former regards policy goals, while the latter regards the innovative way in which the political leadership is trying to mediate between interests in Rome, and between these and national and transnational contexts.
They relate to the underlying reasons for cooperation between the two spheres, to what is at stake in such relationships and to the strains that from time to time put it at risk and the consequent search by political actors for ways to adapt to changing contexts.
In particular, the analysis of these processes from an historical perspective allows us to identify some specific features of the neo-liberalisation of policy and politics that has occurred in Rome over the past twenty years, with particular reference to relationships between ideas, interests, politics, policy and institutional forms.
The first aspect is characterised by an enduring need to bring together diversified interests, in particular the short- and medium-term aspirations of traditional sectors builders, property developers and landlords, who depend heavily on the location and exploitation of urban space and innovative ones advanced service sector, companies dependant on public contracts.
Above all, discourses have so far been very poorly followed up by actual actions, and up to the moment the Plan has not been implemented, with the exception of an official agreement between the City Council and the Chamber of Commerce March Benefiting from such institutional change, F.
Khan academy roman republic
In contrast to the Fiedler contingency model , the path-goal model states that the four leadership behaviors are fluid, and that leaders can adopt any of the four depending on what the situation demands. Nevertheless the new government did not adopt a new regulatory plan, but slightly modified the strategy of the one that was in force. To support leaders' development, he introduced a new model of the human psyche and outlined the principles and techniques of self-mastery, which include the practice of mindfulness meditation. Since employee behavior and productivity are directly affected by their emotional states, it is imperative to consider employee emotional responses to organizational leaders. On the economic front, a period of crisis with a reduction in the number of businesses and in industrial employment in the building industry and in the service sector itself due also to a collapse in public demand, was followed by a general upturn which saw the start of an economic cycle that was particularly good for Rome. The first aspect is characterised by an enduring need to bring together diversified interests, in particular the short- and medium-term aspirations of traditional sectors builders, property developers and landlords, who depend heavily on the location and exploitation of urban space and innovative ones advanced service sector, companies dependant on public contracts. In particular, relationships between exogenous and endogenous factors in the establishment of the neo-liberal paradigm in Rome have been mediated through these innovations in the course of the last twenty years. Ferrarotti , p.
Over the course of time the municipality has obtained special powers, on the one hand when big events are to be managed the mayor was provided with special administrative powers to hold the Jubilee, including the power to coordinate the actions of national administrations and on the other hand through a recent Law no.
based on 46 review