Hosokawa, T. Leipzig, W. In both studies the EPP full version was 16 administered to a sample of individuals, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of the scales.
The term psychoticism is psychiatric in nature, and to avoid the immediate conclusion that high scores are psychologically disturbed, the more euphemistic term, tough-mindedness, is generally preferred since it serves to emphasize the developmental stages of pathology rather than existing conditions.
In a similar 20 study, Fontana and Abouserie examined the relationship between stress and measures on the EPQ in teachers. In a cross-cultural study, Francis, Brown, and Philipchalk compared the psychometric properties of the EPQR-S in four English-speaking countries among a total of undergraduate students, including 59 men and women in England, 57 men and 92 women in Canada, 51 men and 81 women in the USA and 53 men and women in Australia.
Wilson, G. The lie scale performed less well than the extraversion and neuroticism scales, but proved to be adequate. The reliability of the scores varied considerably between scales, with a tendency for the P scale to show the lowest reliability — both the mean and median are below the level that would be considered acceptable.
SCALES Extraversion-Introversion High E scores indicate extraversion, and individuals who score high tend to be outgoing, impulsive, uninhibited, have many social contacts, and often take part in group activities.
Conclusion: It can be proposed that due to satisfactory internal consistency scores, the EPQRS-H is a reliable scale for the measurement of various personality traits.